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Charles Green
Charles Green

Futbol Na Pk 2002 Skachat

This Is Football 2002, known as World Tour Soccer 2002 in North America, is an association football video game developed by Team Soho and published by Sony Computer Entertainment in Europe and 989 Sports in North America exclusively for PlayStation 2. It is the first to be released on the PlayStation 2.[1] The British version of the game featured the Leeds United and England national football team defender Rio Ferdinand on the cover.[2]

futbol na pk 2002 skachat

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This Is Football 2002 was licensed by FIFPro. While this meant all players in the game were licensed, the teams were not, with most of them being referred to by their hometown or other indicative names, such as Arsenal and Juventus being listed in the game as "Highbury" and "Turin" respectively.[3] The game introduced a number of features unique to football games at the time, such as being able to make players deliberately dive (a feature described at the time as controversial).[4] It also granted players the opportunity to deliberately foul with two-footed tackles.[2]

The BBC praised This Is Football 2002 for its unique gameplay features such as the deliberate dives but stated that the tactics and AI was poor compared to the FIFA and PES series.[4] Wales on Sunday likewise praised the detail of players and stadiums but criticized it for being similar to previous football games.[7] IGN gave it a 8.1/10 review praising its gameplay and graphics but criticised the sound effects of the crowd.[6] The majority of reviews put the majority of the negatives down to the developers' inexperience of making football games compared to the longer-running rival franchises.[6][4][7] Copa90 named it as one of their top 10 football games in history.[2]

2002 FIFA World Cup, sometimes known as FIFA World Cup 2002, is the second EA Sports official World Cup video game developed by EA Canada and Creations, with Intelligent Games assisting for PS2, Xbox, Windows, and Nintendo GameCube platform and Tose Software also assisting the GameCube version, the game was published by EA Sports in North America and Europe and published by Electronic Arts Victor in Japan.

Research on joint kinetics during the kick has mainly focused on two issues: first, the magnitude of the moments exerted around lower limb joints and, second, the time-sequence of moment generation during the kick. With respect to the first factor, research has shown that hip flexion moments are almost twice the corresponding knee extension moments (Dorge et al., 1999; Luhtanen, 1988; Nunome et al., 2002; Putnam, 1991; Roberts et al., 1974; Zernicke and Roberts, 1978) during the kick (Table 1). Further, ankle plantarflexion moments are even smaller, reaching 20-30 Nm (Nunome et al., 2002) (Table 1).

The joint moment - time curve patterns during the kick differ between studies (Dorge et al., 1999; Nunome et al., 2002; Roberts et al., 1974). Particularly, during the initial backswing phase, some studies reported very low hip extension values (Roberts et al., 1974) whereas others reported high hip flexion moments (Dorge et al., 1999; Nunome et al., 2002). Further, some studies (Luhtanen, 1988; Nunome et al., 2002; Roberts et al., 1974) reported hip and knee moment - curves with one peak. Hip flexion moments reached maximal value at the end of the backswing whereas maximal knee extension values were observed immediately after, approximately at the end of the leg-cocking phase (Nunome et al., 2002). In contrast, Dorge et al., 1999 reported that the hip and knee moment - time curves demonstrate two peaks during the kick. Particularly, peak hip flexion moment was achieved approximately at 25-30% of kick duration, it then declined and increased again reaching an almost similar peak value just before impact. A curve with two peaks was also observed for the knee moment, with peak moments occurring immediately after the corresponding hip moment peaks. Both hip flexion and knee extension moments significantly decline immediately before impact (Dorge et al., 1999; Huang et al., 1982; Nunome et al., 2002; Roberts et al., 1974) while a recent study (Nunome et al., 2006b) reported an almost minimal hip moment at ball impact. Finally, ankle moments are generally very low during the first half of the kick duration and then increase, reaching maximal values at 70-80% of kick duration (Nunome et al., 2002; Zernicke and Roberts, 1978).

Comparison of previous findings shows a wide range of values for hip and knee joint moments mainly due to methodological differences (Table 1). For example, some studies (Nunome et al., 2002; Putnam, 1991) reported average values during the kick as opposed to instantaneous values reported by others (Dorge et al., 1999; Luhtanen, 1988; Zernicke and Roberts, 1978). Further, three-dimensional models yield higher knee extension moments compared with moments derived using two-dimensional analysis (Nunome et al., 2002; Rodano and Tavana, 1993).

Inverse dynamics models demonstrate several limitations which should also be taken into consideration when explaining soccer kick kinetics (Dorge et al., 1999; Levanon and Dapena, 1998; Nunome et al., 2002). Data processing has a significant impact on the magnitude and the patterns of estimated moments. The most important problem is data smoothing. From the start of the movement until ball impact, joint displacement data could be smoothed using an ordinary filter (i.e. Butterworth filter). However, upon impact there is a sudden change in segmental displacement and velocity values which requires further attention. Application of some filtering techniques may significantly alter the displacement signal by cutting high frequency components leading to an underestimation of the true displacement, velocity and acceleration patterns upon foot - ball impact. For example, Nunome et al. , 2002 illustrated that the use of one direction smoothing shifted the time of hip peak moment towards ball impact compared with bi-directional smoothing, thus altering interpretation of the moment-time curves during the kick. Others have shown that the smoothing routines (polynomial curve fitting) applied to the hip and knee moment data may affect the predicted hip and knee joint moment curves (Huang et al., 1982). Recent data suggest that the use of a modified time-frequency algorithm achieves better capture of segmental motion upon impact compared with traditional filtering techniques, thus improving prediction of segmental moment - time curves during the kick (Nunome et al., 2006b).

Being a swing motion, soccer kick is characterised by proximal-to-distal sequence of segment motions. For kicking, this is the action of the thigh which slows down or reverses its motion prior to full knee extension is reached. Such motion is accomplished through exertion of moments generated through the joints at the proximal end of the segment, exertion of several motion-dependent moments generated through segmental interactions as well as the moment of inertia of the segment about a transverse axis passing through its proximal end (Putnam, 1993; Nunome et al., 2006a; Dorge et al., 2002). Putnam, 1991 first quantified both joint and motion-dependent moments acting on the thigh and the shank during the kick by modelling body segments as a series of rigid links rotating about points fixed in a system. It was found that initiation of the thigh movement is achieved through a hip flexor moment. This is followed by increased angular acceleration of the thigh while the knee flexes and the whole leg is being accelerated in the forward direction. As knee extension motion is initiated, the thigh starts to decelerate due to exertion of motion-dependent moments from the shank (Putnam, 1991) as well as a hip flexion moment (Nunome et al., 2002; Putnam, 1991; Dorge et al., 2002). This contradicts previous studies (Luhtanen, 1988; Zernicke and Roberts, 1978) which attributed the backward acceleration of the thigh to exertion of hip extension moment. In a recent study, Nunome et al. (Nunome et al., 2006a) confirmed the findings by Putnam, 1991 regarding the role of the reactive moments from the shank for thigh deceleration; however, in contrast to all previous studies, Nunome et al., 2006a found that the hip flexion moment had minimal influence on thigh deceleration.

The shank angular velocity increases as the knee extends towards the ball. Shank angular velocity is the result of the moments exerted by the knee joint muscles, the moment due to angular velocity and linear acceleration of the thigh, the moment due to gravitational acceleration of the shank and the moments due to hip acceleration (Putnam, 1991). Of these, the most influential are the muscle (extensor) moment and the moment due to the angular velocity of the thigh (Kellis et al., 2006; Dorge et al., 2002; Nunome et al., 2006a). Particularly, a high knee extensor moment is observed when the forward rotation of the lower leg is initiated (Nunome et al., 2006a). After this, the knee muscle moment declines which coincides with the increase of shank angular velocity. From this point onwards and until ball impact, an interaction moment is developed which increases gradually until just prior to ball impact (Nunome et al., 2006a). Nunome et al., 2006a noticed that at the final stages prior to ball impact, the interactive (forward) moment accelerates the shank while the knee muscle moment acts in the opposite direction (backwards) as the muscular system is forced to be stretched due to the rapid segmental action of the shank. This is an important finding as it may assist us to better understand not only the kinetics of soccer kick but the associated activity of the involved musculature. The reader, however, should be aware that a limitation of the above studies is the assumption that motion-dependent moments are independent of joint moments which, in reality, is not the case (Putnam, 1991). Further, estimation is based on kinematic variables and therefore it is particularly sensitive to errors in kinematic data. 041b061a72


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